Übersetzung für 'ungherese' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. l' ungherese m. [LING.] Ungarische ohne Artikel. fiorino ungherese. Per quanto riguarda il settore dei trasporti ungherese, sono stati espressi una riserva e un parere con rilievi con un impatto significativo a causa dell'elevato.
Italienisch-Deutsch Übersetzung für "ungherese"l' ungherese m. [LING.] Ungarische ohne Artikel. fiorino ungherese. Überprüfen Sie die Übersetzungen von 'ungherese' ins Deutsch. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für ungherese-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die. tchaouwww.com | Übersetzungen für 'ungherese' im Italienisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.
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His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards.
In the ensuing purges approximately , officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from to Some , Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least , died.
The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life.
Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May , as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October , protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the Revolution.
In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact.
Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October , most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside.
For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc.
On 4 November, reinforcements of more than , troops and 2, tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union. Some 13, were interned and brought to trial and executed.
Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.
In , the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising.
In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us. The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one-tenth of pre-revolutionary levels.
From the s through the late s, Hungary was often referred to as " the happiest barrack " within the Eastern bloc. In the s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond.
Over , people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country.
Free elections were held in May , and the Hungarian Democratic Forum , a major conservative opposition group, was elected to the head of a coalition government.
With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in , Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party , won the subsequent elections.
This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in and ; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected.
Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in and the European Union in The legislature consequently approved a new constitution , among other sweeping governmental and legal changes.
Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in and a third in Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law.
The vote was carried with the support of MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state.
In March , during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic , the Hungarian parliament passed a law granting the Government the power to rule by decree to the extent it is necessary to diminish the consequences of the pandemic, suspending by-elections and outlawing the "spreading of misinformation" [ clarification needed ].
The Government's special authorization is in force until the pandemic is declared to have ended. Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers.
The Danube flows north—south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin. Transdanubia , which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains.
To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Hungary is a landlocked country. Hungary has a temperate seasonal climate ,   with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters.
Average annual temperature is 9. Temperature extremes are Hungary is a unitary , parliamentary , representative democratic republic. The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in ; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary.
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: receiving foreign heads of state, formally nominating the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the National Assembly, and serving as Commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power , and may send legislation to the member Constitutional Court for review.
The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly , who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The Prime Minister miniszterelnök is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the head of government and exercising executive power.
Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees , survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president.
The cabinet reports to parliament. According to Eurostat , the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to On Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index Hungary's public sector has deteriorated from a score of 51 in to 44 in making it the 2nd most corrupt EU member at pair with Romania and behind Bulgaria.
According to the report, "the right-wing alliance It also limited parliamentary oversight, independent media , non-governmental organizations and academics , while consolidating power around the central government.
Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system. The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April The new electoral law also entered into force that day.
The voters elected MPs instead of previous lawmakers. The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the s,   and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.
The articles of the diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy , this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise , it was reconstituted in The Latin term Natio Hungarica "Hungarian nation" was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility , the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers,   regardless of language or ethnicity.
The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.
Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest.
Law enforcement in Hungary is split among the police and the National Tax and Customs Administration.
The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control.
The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments.
This merger took place in January Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties megye.
The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units.
County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.
Since , the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into seven regions for statistical and development purposes. The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation , to European integration , to international development and to international law.
Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in and the next will be in Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.
Since , Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations.
Hungary since has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania , Slovakia , and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations.
However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up.
Since , the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. The Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of countries.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Since , the Hungarian Armed Forces has been under a unified command structure.
The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. In , the armed forces had 31, personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand.
In , the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.
Hungarian National Cyber Security Center was re-organized in in order to become more efficient through cyber security.
Hungary sent a strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war.
One soldier was killed in action by a roadside bomb while serving in Iraq. During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries.
In , the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. By , the Hungarian military consisted of over 2, officers and , men organized into eighty-six infantry battalions and fifty-eight mounted squadrons.
During the s and early s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost as a result of the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in Conscription was introduced on a national basis in The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80, men organized into seven corps commands.
During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era — , the entire , strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world.
Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade , thus the country is the 36th largest export economy in the world.
On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent.
Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country.
In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology , information security , and related hardware research.
Unemployment rate was 4. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers.
Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation. Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary.
The capital is a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha — world city in the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network and it is the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe as GDP per capita in the city increased by 2.
Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint HUF , although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of Hungary's achievements in science and technology have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy.
Hungary spent 1. Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed patents , the sixth highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrial output, the 12th highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world.
The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office NRDI Office , which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation , the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government , and the primary RDI funding agency.
Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
As of , twelve Hungarian scientists have been recipients of a Nobel Prize. Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists.
Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, Debrecen , Miskolc , and Szeged have tram networks.
The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from The system consists of four lines.
Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital.
The most important port is Budapest. Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy. Hungary's population was 9,, according to the census , making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union.
Population density stands at inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average.
More than one quarter of the population lived in the Budapest metropolitan area , 6,, people Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility ; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.
In , the conservative government began a program to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs.
The fertility rate has gradually increased from 1. Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: a German community of about , that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around , that mainly resides in the northern part of the country.
Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary , people — c. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia , western Ukraine Subcarpathia , central and western Romania Transylvania , northern Serbia Vojvodina , northern Croatia , northeastern Slovenia Mur region and eastern Austria.
It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America particularly the United States and Canada and Israel.
With 13 million speakers, it is the Uralic family's largest member by number of speakers. Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family.
Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the s, and the family itself then called Finno-Ugric was established in Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugric branch within the Finno-Ugric group, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia Khanty—Mansia region , but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group.
There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. Khanty sot [sot] "hundred". The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular.
The traditional view holds that the Hungarian language diverged from its Ugric relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium BC, in western Siberia east of the southern Urals.
In Hungarian, Iranian loanwords date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium.
Archaeological evidence from present day southern Bashkortostan confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
This layer of Turkic loans is large and varied e. Turkish dial. After the arrival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin , the language came into contact with a variety of speech communities , among them Slavic , Turkic , and German.
Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians , who settled in Hungary during the 12th and 13th centuries: e. Hungarian borrowed many words from neighbouring Slavic languages : e.
These languages in turn borrowed words from Hungarian: e. About 1. Recent studies support an origin of the Uralic languages, including early Hungarian, in eastern or central Siberia , somewhere between the Ob and Yenisei river or near the Sayan mountains in the Russian — Mongolian border region.
Today the consensus among linguists is that Hungarian is a member of the Uralic family of languages. During the latter half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian, or, alternatively, that both the Uralic and the Turkic families formed part of a superfamily of Ural—Altaic languages.
Hungarians did in fact absorb some Turkic influences during several centuries of cohabitation. For example, the Hungarians appear to have learned animal husbandry techniques from the Turkic Chuvash people , as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture and livestock are of Chuvash origin.
A strong Chuvash influence was also apparent in Hungarian burial customs. The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in by Stephen I. The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany from , intermingled with Latin text.
The first extant text fully written in Hungarian is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer , which dates to the s. Although the orthography of these early texts differed considerably from that used today, contemporary Hungarians can still understand a great deal of the reconstructed spoken language, despite changes in grammar and vocabulary.
A more extensive body of Hungarian literature arose after The earliest known example of Hungarian religious poetry is the 14th-century Lamentations of Mary.
The first Bible translation was the Hussite Bible in the s. There were also changes in the system of vowel harmony.
At one time, Hungarian used six verb tenses , while today only two or three are used. By the 17th century, the language already closely resembled its present-day form, although two of the past tenses remained in use.
German, Italian and French loans also began to appear. Further Turkish words were borrowed during the period of Ottoman rule to This movement produced more than ten thousand words, most of which are used actively today.
The 19th and 20th centuries saw further standardization of the language, and differences between mutually comprehensible dialects gradually diminished.
In , Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon , losing 71 percent of its territory and one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population along with it.
Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania , Slovakia , Serbia , Austria and Slovenia.
Hungarian has about 13 million    native speakers, of whom more than 9. According to the Hungarian census, 9,, people Of these, the largest group lives in Transylvania , the western half of present-day Romania , where there are approximately 1.
There are large Hungarian communities also in Slovakia , Serbia and Ukraine , and Hungarians can also be found in Austria , Croatia , and Slovenia , as well as about a million additional people scattered in other parts of the world.
For example, there are more than one hundred thousand Hungarian speakers in the Hungarian American community and 1. Hungarian is the official language of Hungary, and thus an official language of the European Union.
Hungarian is officially recognized as a minority or regional language in Austria , Croatia , Romania , Zakarpattia in Ukraine , and Slovakia.
These dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Hungarian has 14 vowel phonemes and 25 consonant phonemes. Most of the pairs have an almost similar pronunciation and vary significantly only in their duration.
Consonant length is also distinctive in Hungarian. Most consonant phonemes can occur as geminates. A single 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar tap akkora 'of that size' , but a double 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar trill akkorra 'by that time' , like in Spanish.
Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as in Finnish and the neighbouring Slovak and Czech.
Elongated vowels in non-initial syllables may seem to be stressed to an English-speaker [ citation needed ] , as length and stress correlate in English.
Hungarian is an agglutinative language. It uses various affixes , mainly suffixes but also some prefixes and a circumfix , to change a word's meaning and its grammatical function.
Hungarian uses vowel harmony to attach suffixes to words. That means that most suffixes have two or three different forms, and the choice between them depends on the vowels of the head word.
There are some minor and unpredictable exceptions to the rule. Questi dialetti sono reciprocamente comprensibili. L' alfabeto ungherese utilizza i seguenti caratteri:.
Per rendere le numerose consonanti della lingua ungherese, ci si serve non solo di singoli grafemi, ma anche di parecchi digrammi.
Di seguito sono elencati i digrammi, assieme alle consonanti singole che possono generare confusione rispetto all'uso che ne viene fatto in italiano:.
Altri progetti. Secondo la precedente Costituzione del fortemente emendata nel , il Paese era una repubblica parlamentare. Inoltre, i deputati dell'Assemblea Nazionale sono stati ridotti a membri.
Budapest Debrecen Seghedino Miskolc. Durante le manifestazioni, che chiedono le dimissioni del primo ministro, per il momento non concesse, alcune frange di manifestanti numericamente esigui, ma molto violenti , secondo la polizia legati agli ultras delle squadre di calcio, hanno compiuto numerosi atti vandalici per tre notti consecutive, assaltando anche la sede della televisione nazionale.
Il 24 settembre i manifestanti decidono di continuare la protesta nelle piazze. Il Fidesz , principale partito di opposizione, annuncia di incominciare la battaglia politica in parlamento, chiedendo formalmente le dimissioni del governo e nuove elezioni politiche, la richiesta viene fatta il 25 settembre.
Il 6 ottobre il primo ministro chiede e ottiene la fiducia del Parlamento in cui gode di ampia maggioranza. Il 23 ottobre , in coincidenza con la celebrazione del cinquantesimo anniversario dell' Insurrezione di Budapest con la presenza di rappresentanti di quasi tutti i paesi del mondo, sono riprese, in diverse zone della capitale, le manifestazioni contro il governo.
Quando la polizia comincia, nelle prime ore del mattino, a evacuare piazza Kossuth la piazza antistante il Parlamento, occupata da diverse settimane dai manifestanti antigovernativi per permettere lo svolgimento della solenne commemorazione ufficiale del 23 ottobre, riprendono gli scontri in varie zone della capitale.
In una piazza del centro, alcuni manifestanti si impossessano di un carro armato storico utilizzato per le cerimonie del 23 ottobre e con questo si dirigono verso le linee della polizia, ma vengono rapidamente bloccati e disarmati.
In una zona non molto distante, alcune centinaia di migliaia di cittadini si erano radunate per la commemorazione del 23 ottobre organizzata dal Fidesz, questa si svolge in maniera pacifica.
Il Fidesz intanto ha dato vita a un centro di documentazione per le persone che si considerano vittime o testimoni di abusi che la polizia avrebbe commesso il 23 ottobre, a tale centro si sarebbero rivolte finora centinaia di persone, tra le quali anche diversi stranieri, che sarebbero stati maltrattati dalla polizia ungherese, in occasione della festa nazionale.
Si coltivano legumi , cereali , frutta, ortaggi, uva, tabacco, lino, canapa e peperoni rossi, da cui si ricava la paprica , inoltre si allevano cavalli , bovini e ovini.
Le principali industrie sono quelle meccaniche, chimiche e farmaceutiche. Inoltre si estraggono la bauxite, la lignite, il carbon fossile e il gas naturale.
Questo piatto consiste in una sostanziosa minestra a base di carne , lardo, soffritto di cipolla e carote , patate e paprica.